The Treaty of Ghent

Learn about the treaty that ended the War of 1812 and the costs of the conflict.

Compiled by Canada’s History

Posted November 15, 2019

On December 24, 1814, representatives of Britain and the United States met in Belgium to sign the Treaty of Ghent. The agreement formally concluded the War of 1812, which had profound repercussions for the future of North America. Combatants included Britain, the United States, Indigenous peoples of eastern North America, and citizens of what is now Canada. Despite the treaty, combat continued for several weeks due to a delay in the news reaching North America.

10,000

Approximate number of Indigenous people who fought in the War of 1812.

32

Duration of the war, in months.

11

The number of articles that make up the Treaty of Ghent. A key condition was the concept of “status quo ante bellum,” which involved a return of all captured territory to the original owners.

23,600

Approximate combined death toll of American, British, and Canadian soldiers. The number of Indigenous casualties is unknown.

9

The article in the treaty that called for the restoration of all Indigenous lands to 1811 conditions. This article was ignored by the Americans.

This article as orginally published in the December 2019-January 2020 issue of Canada’s History.

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