Grade Levels: Grades 7/8, 9/10, 11/12
Subject Area: Social Studies/History/Geography
This lesson is based on the Treaties and the Treaty Relationship issue of Canada’s History magazine.
In this lesson students explore the concept of spirit and intent by investigating the differing views held by the Crown and First Nation peoples at the time of Treaty-making. They analyze spirit and intent as the basis of renewing the Treaty relationship.
One class period
Historical Thinking Concept(s)
- Identify continuity and change
- Take historical perspectives
- Explore the context in which the Numbered Treaties were negotiated and signed.
- Analyze the nature of First Nations’ understandings of Treaties as compared to the government’s understandings.
- Interpret differing accounts of Treaty to understand how different understandings evolved.
- Assess the way in which contemporary Treaty interpretations of historical agreements fall short of the intentions of their First Nations signatories.
The Lesson Activity
Activating: How will students be prepared for learning?
- As a personal reflection, have students reflect on a time they made an agreement or came to an understanding with a friend or peer.
- Have them consider: the nature of the agreement/compromise, how they got to that point, and if it unfolded in good way.
- Invite students to share their reflections with the class.
- Lead an all-class discussion centred on the following questions: What promises were made, kept? If there was misunderstanding, why? What makes an agreement successful or unsuccessful?
- Ask: How can promises can be recorded/remembered? [written, oral, handshake, etc.]
Acquiring: What strategies facilitate learning for groups and individuals?
- Access and play the audio spot: “Let’s Talk Treaty: Episode 2.” [15:09]
- Check for understanding after the audio clip had played:
- What does Elder Bone mean when he says, “Treaties are more than written understanding?”
- Treaty Commissioner Loretta Ross mentions that “They view Treaties more like contracts.” Who is “they”?
- What Treaty partner views Treaty promises as more than the simple written text?
- What does “spirit and intent” mean regarding Treaty-making?
- Devise a definition of “spirit and intent” based on class input and discussion. Write on whiteboard.
- Encourage questions and discussion.
Applying: How will students demonstrate their understanding?
- Read aloud the following excerpt from the Treaties and the Treaty Relationship issue of Canada’s History magazine. (p. 11):
Recovering the true spirit and intent of Treaties is a priority. These agreements are not old, obsolete, or pointless. First Nations’ own histories and accounts of Treaty processes uphold important principles of reciprocity, respect, and renewal rooted in thousands of years of experience and presence on these lands. The Treaties hold the keys to a new path forward as living agreements regarding relationships between First Nations and settlers in the past, for the present, and towards the future.
The original spirit and intent of Treaty involves understanding and upholding the agreements people actually negotiated, rather than focusing on how Treaties have been reinterpreted long after the fact.
- Write the words reciprocity, respect, and renewal on the whiteboard. Define each.
- Lead a class discussion how each word relates to the concept of spirit and intent.
- Hand out copies of BLM #2.1 and instruct the students to complete them.
Research a wampum Treaty such as the Two-Row Wampum, the Dish with One Spoon wampum, or the Treaty of Niagara wampum. Discovering the principles behind one of these agreements, students can then contrast how these agreements may resemble and differ in content, shape and form from subsequent agreements, such as the Numbered Treaties.
In this lesson students explore the Numbered Treaties with a focus on present relevance, historical and contemporary relationships, and the benefits shared by all Canadians.
In this lesson students investigate the Treaty experience in British Columbia by exploring and assembling a timeline of significant events.
In this lesson students explore First Nation title to land in the Ottawa Valley.
In this lesson students explore the enduring and cross-country nature of the Treaty relationship in Canada making note of challenges and opportunities.
In this lesson students explore the Treaty of Niagara as a foundational relationship in the creation of Canada.
In this lesson students examine the idea of justice as it applies to Treaty interpretations.
In this lesson students explore the enduring relevance and continued significance of the Treaty relationship in Canada and consider the Treaty relationship as a path toward reconciliation.
In this lesson students use primary source material to explore the constitutional validity of the Treaties of Peace and Friendship.
In this lesson students explore James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and the resulting affects on Cree and Inuit.